Land sutability for establishing rainswater harvesting systems for fighting wildfires
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DESCRIPTIONMxico, al igual que otros pases, se ha visto impactado por la creciente ocurrencia de incendios forestales; as, entre otras acciones, se lleva a cabo el control areo de incendios mediante helicpteros, actividad que se ve limitada por la falta de agua. En este sentido, los sistemas de captacin de agua de lluvia (SCALL) pueden solucionar este problema.En el presente estudio, se realiz un anlisis de aptitud territorial en un SIG para establecer SCALL en el oriente del estado de Mxico.Se eligieron cinco variables para determinar la ubicacin de SCALL: velocidad de rfaga, evaporacin, distancia a caminos, escurrimiento superficial y densidad de incendios; las cuales se representaron geogrficamente mediante el inverso de la distancia ponderada para las dos primeras; distancia euclidiana, Curvas Numricas y mdulo de Point Density, para las tres ltimas, respectivamente.Se utiliz la metodologa de clasificacin para estimar los pesos de las variables y la combinacin lineal ponderada para generar el mapa de aptitud.Se identificaron dos reas con aptitudes mximas, al noreste de Ixtapaluca y al sur de Tlalmanalco. El mapa de aptitud mostr relaciones positivas en la zona norte con las variables densidad de incendios, escurrimiento y evaporacin; mientras que en la zona sur, con las variables escurrimiento, evaporacin y velocidad de rfaga. La aptitud identificada defini las mejores reas para establecer SCALL destinados al control areo de incendios forestales, lo que permitir un control oportuno; as, a fin de que existan incentivos econmicos para construirlos, la propuesta deber integrarse al marco de la poltica forestal.
- GENERAL TECHNICAL REPORT PSW-GTR-245 304 Land Suitability for Establishing Rainwater Harvesting Systems for Fighting Wildfires1 Jos Mara Len Villalobos2 , Manuel Anaya Garduo1 , Enrique Ojeda Trejo1 , Dante Arturo Rodrguez Trejo3 , Jos Luis Oropeza Mota1 , and Jorge Luis Garca Rodrguez4 Abstract Rainwater harvesting systems (RHSs) can be used to improve the efficiency of helicopter fire- fighting operations. To this end, RHSs need to be strategically located in areas with high wildfire occurrence to maximize their usefulness. In this study, spatial analysis was carried out to determine suitable sites for establishing RHSs intended for air attack operations in three municipalities (Chalco, Ixtapaluca and Tlalmanalco) located in the eastern part of the state of Mexico, Mexico. Five variables were used for site selection: wind speed, distance to roads, runoff, evaporation and wildfire density. Each variable was graded by consulting experts and multi-criteria decision analysis was performed to integrate them on a map. Potential RHS sites that met most of the criteria established are in the north and south of the study area. The method used in this study to identify suitable sites for establishing RHSs is a useful tool. Expert knowledge and field visits would also be helpful in selecting the best RHS site and design, in order to reduce costs and environmental impacts. Keywords: curve number, multi-criteria analysis, wildfire fighting. Introduction Mexico, like other countries, has been impacted by the increasing occurrence of forest fires and mega-fires, exacerbated by the effects of global climate change. On average 10,521 fires occur in Mexico each year, affecting some 292,701 ha (Rodrguez and others, 2000). PROBOSQUE, a pro-forest alliance in the State of Mexico, has identified the Itza-Popo region in the state as being at high risk for wildfires and, in particular, the municipalities of Chalco, Ixtapaluca and Thalmanalco in number and area affected. To cope with the fire season, among other activities, air 1 An abbreviated version of this paper was presented at the Fourth International Symposium on Fire Economics, Planning, and Policy: Climate Change and Wildfires, November 5-11; Mexico City, Mexico. 2 Graduate College, Campus Montecillo; Email: email@example.com 3 Forest Science Department, Autonomous University of Chapingo. 4 Forest soils monitoring and inventorying Division, Mexico National Forestry Commission (CONAFOR in Spanish).
- Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Fire Economics, Planning, and Policy: Climate Change and Wildfires 305 attack operations are conducted, but their efficiency is limited by the lack of nearby water sources. Rainwater harvesting systems (RHS), which describe all methods to concentrate, store and collect rainwater runoff (De Winnaar and others 2007), are renowned for their versatility to solve water shortage problems, although their location may depend on many factors, so geographic information systems (GIS) are used to address this complexity (Mbilinyi and others 2007). Numerous studies have been undertaken to determine suitable RHS sites: Sekar and Randhir (2007) designed a spatial method to identify suitable rainwater harvesting sites based on groundwater recharge potentials; Mohtar and others (2006) presented a GIS-based system to locate suitable water harvesting reservoirs in a local watershed. The objectives of this study are: a) the selection and geographic treatment by GIS of the variables that affect the location of suitable RHS sites and b) the weighting and integration of these variables using a participatory hierarchical process and a multi-criteria method. Methods The study area is located in the east of the state of Mexico, comprising the municipalities of Chalco, Tlamanalco and Ixtapaluca (Figure 1) and covering an area of 70,668.09 ha. Figure1 Study area location. According to Escamilla and others (2010), the air operations officer for Mexicos national forestry commission (CONAFOR)5 and related studies (Weerasinghe and others 2010), the most important variables in water loading and RHS functionality in air control of wildfires are as follows : a) wind speed, b) fire density c) proximity to roads, d) visibility (fog), e) air temperature, f) altitude; g) surface runoff, h) slopes and i) evaporation. After a detailed analysis of the information, the variables visibility, air temperature, slope and altitude were
- GENERAL TECHNICAL REPORT PSW-GTR-245 306 discarded, while the remaining ones were processed in the GIS, generating the following maps: a) Wind speed: eight AWS (automated weather stations) were geographically referenced in ArcGIS 9.2; the arithmetic means of the winds in the fire season (December to July) were obtained and the IDW (Inverse Distance Weighting) interpolation method was used. The map was reclassified according to the Beaufort scale. b) Fire density: the map was generated from 456 records in the study area for the 2005- 2010 period, using the ArcGis 9.2 point density module (Vilar del Hoyo 2007). c) Proximity of roads: the roads were digitized on SPOT 5 images and the Euclidean distance module in ArcGIS 9.2 was applied to generate vertical distances in meters. d) Surface runoff: it was calculated with the curve number (CN) method used by the USDA Soil Conservation Service (SCS); the rainfall information required in the calculation was obtained in two steps: 1) for each weather station, the length of records needed to ensure the data mean had a probability of 90% was determined, and 2) the rain distribution function values were adjusted to calculate the return period to 1.1 years and ensure a 90% probability in the precipitation range (Campos 1998). The hydrologic group was assigned to each soil unit according to USDA SCS tables and vegetation cover, updated to 2010, was classified by its hydrological condition; both were superimposed on the ArcView 3.2 program and assigned the corresponding NC for antecedent moisture type II, 12.7 - 38.1 mm, (Ramakrishnan and others 2009). Surface runoff was multiplied by the cell surface (900 m2 ) to obtain the result in cubic meters. e) Evaporation: for calculating it, the average annual values were interpolated by the IDW method in Arc GIS 9.2. To develop the land suitability map, maps of the fire density, surface runoff, evaporation, wind speed and distance to roads variables were reclassified into four categories, then each category was prioritized according to the expert and its weighting values immediately indicated; they were obtained from the method of addition and reciprocal (SEMARNAT - INE 2006): 0.33, 0.27, 0.20, 0.13 and 0.07, respectively. The maps were integrated by weighted linear combination (Bojrquez- Tapia and others 2003). The suitability map was standardized on a scale of 0 to 10. Results Maps were prepared in Arc Gis 9.2 for the five selected variables:
- Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Fire Economics, Planning, and Policy: Climate Change and Wildfires 307 a) Wind speed: the most severe were found in higher altitude areas in the northeast, and the lowest in the lower areas in the southwest. The optimal class chosen for establishing RHSs was 29 to 49 km h-1 (Table 1). Table 1Classes, areas and prioritization of the wind speed variable Variable Prioritization Classes Area Surface area occupied km/h ha % Wind 1 75 - 117 28 269.53 40.00 speed 2 62 74 8200.26 11.60 3 50 61 13 832.61 19.57 4 29 - 49 20 365.70 28.82 70 668 100 b) Distance to roads: the study area presented, in a little over 94% of its area, distances from 0 to 1000 m that were selected as optimal (Table 2). Table 2Classes, areas and prioritization of the variable distance to roads Variable Prioritization Classes Area On the Ground Distribution m ha % Distance 1 2000 - 2500 453.15 0.64 to roads 2 1500 - 2000 786.96 1.11 3 1000 - 1500 2348.46 3.32 4 0 - 1000 67 078.62 94.92 70 668 100 c) Surface runoff: the highest volumes (415-667 m3 ) were identified south of Tlalmanalco and was selected as optimal (Table 3); by contrast, to the north, in Ixtapaluca, the lowest inputs were located (163-280 m3 ).
- GENERAL TECHNICAL REPORT PSW-GTR-245 308 Table 3Classes, areas and prioritization of the variable surface runoff Variable Prioritization Classes Area On the Ground Distribution Surface m3 ha % runoff 1 163 - 280 1836.24 2.60 2 280 - 402 41 958.08 59.45 3 402- 415 15 346.02 21.74 4 415 667 11 432.91 16.20 70 668 100 d) Evaporation: values between 1080 and 1968 mm were found as the annual average (Table 4). Class 1080 - 1302 mm was selected as the optimum. Table 4 Classes, area and prioritization of the variable evaporation Variable Prioritization Classes Area On the Ground Distribution Evaporation mm ha % 1 1745 - 1968 13 390.56 18.95 2 1524 - 1745 12 738.51 18.03 3 1302 - 1524 11 103.03 15.71 4 1080 - 1302 33 437.79 47.32 70 668 100 d) Fire density: there were from 0 to 3.3 fires km-2 and densities of 2.4 to 3.3 were selected as optimal (Table 5). Table 5 Classes, areas and prioritization of the variable fire density Variable Prioritization Classes Area On the Ground Distribution Fire fires km-2 ha % density 1 0-0.8 55 193.72 78.10 2 0.8-1.6 6949.52 9.83 3 1.6-2.4 5484.25 7.76 4 2.4-3.3 3043.71 4.31 70 668 100 The maximum land suitability for RHSs intended for the control of forest fires was located to the northeast, in Ixtapaluca, and the south in Tlalmanalco (Figure 4). Most of the area, 30.49%, was placed in category five (Table 6).
- Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Fire Economics, Planning, and Policy: Climate Change and Wildfires 309 Figure 4Land suitability for RHSs for forest fire control Table 6Area of each suitability category found in the study area Discussion Other researchers with a similar approach rely on the analysis of two variables: a) surface runoff (Gutpa and others 1997) and b) slopes (Mbilinyi and others 2007), simplifying the selection criteria, as observed by Ramakrishnan and others (2009). Although for most studies the slope variable is important, it was discarded from the model because of its low weight value. By contrast, Gutpa and others (1997) indicate that slope is a key variable due to its influence on the amount of runoff; however, this claim has limited validity on a regional scale as is the case in this study. Elevation was also eliminated from the model because air fire control has been performed successfully at altitudes over 4,000 m. Surface runoff presented great variability, 163-667 m3 , on the map; for example, the northeast showed high curve numbers (70, 73 and 86) and significant runoff Suitability scale Area On the Ground Distribution (ha) (%) 4 939.51 1.33 5 21 512.43 30.49 6 13 579.11 19.24 7 14 383.71 20.39 8 14 229.45 20.17 9 5829.93 8.26 10 85.86 0.12 70 668 100%
- GENERAL TECHNICAL REPORT PSW-GTR-245 310 volumes (415-667 m3), which were related to regosol soils and 600 mm of rainfall annually. Figure 3Curve number per unit of soil and vegetation type This was also observed by Sekar and others (2007) in a similar study, where soil types and their infiltration capacity directly affected the curve number values and subsequent runoff values. Distances to RHSs intended for agricultural use have been set at between 1000 and 2000 m (De Winnaar and others 2007); by contrast, this proposal requires greater proximity to roads. The optimal class kept a positive relationship with high suitability due to the adequacy of the road network in the fire areas. Furthermore, sites found to be suitable for RHSs intended for forest fire control respond, on one hand, to the weighting values of each variable, and on the other, to the optimum classes of each one, as is the case with the fire density, runoff and evaporation variables, which define the suitable sites in the north area. This was also observed by Weerasinghe and others (2010), whose potential RHS sites depended on the weight values and the optimum classes of each variable. Instead, there was a negative relationship with the wind speed variable in the north area, which is consistent with the observations of Simiu (1978), who stated that the records of wind under 10 do not produce accurate results. Although you may consider other factors of social, economic and environmental, they can be validated in the establishment of RHS site according to terrain and layout of the structure (De Winnaar and others 2007, Sekar and Randhir 2007, Ramakrishnan and others 2009).
- Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Fire Economics, Planning, and Policy: Climate Change and Wildfires 311 Summary This research evaluated the territorial capacity in three municipalities in the eastern part of the state of Mexico, RHS intended to establish air control of wildfires, combining variables affecting the water loading of the helicopter and the same RHS by multicriteria evaluation in GIS, finding good skills in over 28% of the study area, in two areas: north, in Ixtapaluca, and south in Tlalmanalco. Variables responded mostly with a positive, except for wind speed. Identified fitness provides a useful framework for making decisions, which will have to add economic and social elements to decide on the type of structure (design) that is more affordable and cause the least environmental impact. References Bojrquez Tapia, L.A. L.; Bower, P.; Castilleja, G.; Snchez-Coln, S.; Hernndez, M.; Calvert, W.; Daz, S.; Gmez-Priego, P.; Alcantar, G.; Melgarejo, D.; Solares, M.; Gutirrez L.; M. Jurez. 2003. Mapping expert knowledge: redesigning the monarch butterfly biosphere reserve. Conservation Biology. 17 (2): 367-379. Campos, A.D.F. 1998. Procesos del ciclo hidrolgico. Universidad Autnoma de San Luis Potos. San Luis Potos, Mxico. 556 p. De Winnaar, G.; Jewitt, G.P. W.; Horan, M. 2007. A GIS-based approach for identifying potential runoff harvesting sites in the Thukela River basin, South Africa. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C. 32 (3): 1058-1067. Escamilla, G.; Prez P.J.; Valenzuela P.L. 2010. La brigada de helitanque y los procedimientos de trabajo con helicpteros. Corporacin Nacional Forestal. Santiago de Chile, Chile. 52 p. Gutpa, K. K.; Deelstra, J.; Sharma, K. D. 1997. Estimation of water harvesting potential for a semiarid area using GIS and remote sensing. (242). http://iahs.info/redbooks/a242/iahs_242_0053.pdf (22 de febrero de 2012). Mbilinyi, B.P.; Tumbo, S.D.; Mahoo H.F.; Mkiramwinyi, F.O. 2007. GIS - based decision support system for identifying potential sites for rainwater harvesting. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C. 32 (16):1074-1081. Mohtar, H.R., Zhai, T.; Choi, J.Y.; Adrian, B.; Ouessar, M.; Abdelli, F.; Bernard, E. 2006. Web - based GIS - Hydrologic Modeling for Siting Water Harvesting Reservoirs (ISCO2006). http://www.vulgarisation.net/isco2006/1/T1- MohtarWeb%20Based%20GIS%20Hydrologi-cal % 20Modeling-USA.pdf (19 de enero de 2012). Promotora de Bosques del Estado de Mxico (PROBOSQUE). 2011. Probosque en alerta durante la temporada de estiaje (6). http://www.forestalxxi.com/index.php?option=comcontent& view=article&id=243:probosque-en-alerta-durante-la-temporada-de- estiaje&catid=76:probo osque&Itemid =70 (20 de enero de 2012). Ramakrishnan, D.; Bandyopadhyay, A; Kusuma, K. 2009. SCS - CN and GIS - based approach for identifying potential water harvesting sites in the Kali Watershed, Mahi River Basin, India. Journal of Earth System Science. 118 (4):355-368. Rodrguez, T.D.A.; Rodrguez, A.M.; Snchez, F.F. 2000. Educacin e incendios forestales. Editorial Mundi-Prensa. Mxico, D.F. 201 p.
- GENERAL TECHNICAL REPORT PSW-GTR-245 312 Sekar, I.; Randhir, T.O. 2007. Spatial assessment of conjunctive water harvesting potential in watershed systems. Journal of Hydrology. 334 (2):39-52. Simiu, E. 1978. Wind effects on structures: an introduction to wind engineering. John Willey and Sons. New York, E.U. 589 p. Vilar del Hoyo. 2007. Anlisis comparativo de diferentes mtodos para la obtencin de modelos de riesgo humano de incendios forestales. Anlisis comparativo de diferentes mtodos para la obtencin de modelos de riesgo humano de incendios forestales (1). http://www.geogra.uah.es/firemap/pdf/VilardelHoyo_et_al_SPAIN.pdf (20 de enero de 2012). Weerasinghe, H.; Schneider, U.; Lw, A. 2010. Water harvest and storage location optimization model using GIS and remote sensing (1). http://balwois.com/balwois /administration/full paper/ffp-1653.pdf (5 de febrero de 2012).
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